Pashu Ayurveda or veterinary science is to take care of the animals and birds by tending to their health. Animals received good medical care in ancient India. The concept of 'Pashu Ayurveda' or the ancient veterinary science points towards a 'comprehensive man-animal relation' which existed in olden days. Animals have always an integral part of society man for ages. A man has used animals and domesticated them for various uses like obtaining food products, farming, transportation, etc. In day-to-day life, animals, birds and plants became a part and parcel of their life. Hence, special care was taken regarding their health and man developed several medicines for the welfare of animals. Unfortunately, this knowledge is gradually declining and limited to a handful of folklore practitioners.
Indian livestock sector today has 185 million cattle, 98 million buffaloes, 124.5 million goats, 6 million sheep, 343 million poultry, 13.5 million pigs, 1.6 million equines, 6.3 million camel and accounts for 16% cattle, 57% buffaloes (rank-I), 18% goat (rank- II), 6% sheep (rank-III) in the world. The livestock sub-sector has a significant role in rural economy. Dairying especially is of vital importance to the livelihood security of rural poor. Around 80% of the bovine owners in India belong to the Below Poverty Line (BPL) population. They consist of landless, marginal and small farmers. For the dairy farmer, cattle feed accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of milk production. The animal disease continues to be a major drain on farmer's income. Modern veterinary care reaches only 20% of livestock owners.